Integral Experiments Data, Databases, Benchmarks and Safety Joint Projects

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Program name | Package id | Status | Status date |
---|---|---|---|

SCIP PROJECT | CSNI2019/01 | Arrived | 08-MAR-2012 |

Machines used:

Package ID | Orig. computer | Test computer |
---|---|---|

CSNI2019/01 | Many Computers |

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3. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT

New nuclear fuel designs need to be verified with respect to relevant performance and safety aspects, notably resistance to corrosion and resistance to pellet-clad mechanical interaction (PCMI) under normal operating conditions and in transients. Assessments should also cover conditions such as those prevailing in fuel handling and storage.

In order to achieve this goal, a fundamental understanding of the dominant cladding failure mechanisms is needed. This project addresses this need. The overriding objective of this project is to obtain an improved fundamental understanding of the dominant failure mechanisms for light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding under pellet-clad mechanical interaction (PCMI) loading that can arise during normal operation or anticipated transients. The focus will be on the following failure mechanisms, which will be studied within the corresponding project tasks:

PCMI driving force;

pellet-clad interaction (PCI): stress corrosion cracking (SCC) initiated at the cladding inner surface under the combined effect of the mechanical loading and chemical environment caused by an increase in the fuel pellet temperature following a power increase;

hydride embrittlement: time-independent fracture of existing hydrides;

delayed hydride cracking (DHC): time-dependent crack initiation and propagation through fracture of hydrides that can form ahead of the crack tip.

For each of these failure mechanisms, the project objectives can be broken down into the following types of investigation:

quantifying the key parameters and their influences through separate effects studies;

identifying the key physical processes and phenomena that are involved in each failure mechanism and theoretical modelling of the fracture mechanisms;

developing and refining testing techniques for the experimental verification of the fuel behaviour with respect to these failure mechanisms.

The project will seek to sustain the existing information legacy and facilitate the transfer of knowledge by means of seminars and workshops. The project also has the following general objectives:

to improve the general understanding of cladding integrity at high burn-up;

to study both boiling water reactor and pressurised water reactor/VVER fuel cladding integrity;

to complement two large international projects (CABRI and ALPS), which focus on fuel behaviour in design basis accidents (RIA), where some of the mechanisms are similar to those that may occur during normal operational transients or anticipated transients;

to achieve results of general applicability (i.e. not restricted to a particular fuel design, fabrication specification or operating condition). The results can consequently be used in solving a wider spectrum of problems and can be applied to different cases;

to achieve experimental efficiency through the judicious use of a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques and approaches.

Although the primary concern of this project is the integrity of LWR cladding during in-reactor service, a number of closely related areas may also be addressed, which can be relevant to water reactors in general. As already mentioned, the cladding behaviour of discharged fuel during handling, transportation and storage shares some features in common with the cladding's integrity whilst in the reactor.

Nuclear safety organisations, research laboratories and industry are being contacted in order to establish the technical and financial basis for this project. From the Swedish side, the project is supported by the utilities, the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate and Westinghouse Atom.

The project has so far focused on the execution of several power ramps and in defining a hot cell programme with focus on the various failure mechanisms, which will be studied within the corresponding project tasks. These are as follows:

Pellet-clad interaction (PCI): stress corrosion cracking (SCC) initiated at the cladding inner surface under the combined effect of the mechanical loading and chemical environment caused by an increase in the fuel pellet temperature following a power increase.

Hydride embrittlement: time independent fracture of existing hydrides.

Delayed hydride cracking (DHC): time dependent crack initiation and propagation through fracture of hydrides that can form ahead of the crack tip.

Recently, the US NRC decided to carry out a test programme on the behaviour of high burn-up fuel in Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions in the Studsvik hot cells and in conjunction with the SCIP programme. Studsvik is a well-established international nuclear research centre located in Sweden. It performs, amongst other tasks, the examination and testing of nuclear fuel and specialises in studies of cladding behaviour under a variety of test conditions. Studsvik aims to become a centre of excellence for investigations of irradiated fuel cladding materials and maintains close co-operation with the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology and Malmo University on cladding integrity investigations. This research is being carried out under a Swedish-sponsored programme similar to the present project. As recommended by the CSNI, comprehensive industry participation was sought in the project establishment phase.

Participating countries:

Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Republic of Korea, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States.

Project period: Current mandate: July 2004 to June 2009.

The distribution of this package is restricted and subject to prior approval.

For more detailed information visit http://www.oecd-nea.org/jointproj/scip.html

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10. REFERENCES

A-M. Alvarez-Holston, G. Lysell, V. Grigoriev (2007):

Studies of Hydrogen Assisted Failures Initiating at the Cladding Outer Surface of High Burnup Fuel Using a Modified Ring Tensile Technique, Proceedings of the 2007 International LWR Fuel Performance Meeting, San Francisco, California, USA, 30 September-3 October 2007.

CSNI2019/01, included references:

- Terje Tverberg:Power Ramp Test of a Segmented BWR Rod at Halden for the SCIP Program

HR-47 April 2009

- UlfEngman:

Power Ramp Test of a BWR-Westinghouse rod from KKL

N-04/105; STUDSVIK-SCIP 1, 2004-08-11

- Anna-Maria Alvarez, Carolina Losin:

2:1-B Parametric study of crack initiation in hydride dense rim, Part I

STUDSVIK/N-04/177; STUDSVIK-SCIP 2; 2004-12-23

- Andreas Varias:

3:2-A Modelling of delayed hydride cracking (DHC)-Stress conditions in the

hydride precipitation zone

STUDSVIK/N-05/031; STUDSVIK-SCIP 04; 2005-01-05

- Rikard Kallstrom, Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Refabrication of four ramp rodlets from Westinghouse father rods irradiated in

Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt

N-05/068; STUDSVIK-SCIP-5; 2005-03-15

- Rikard Kallstrom:

SCIP Ramp test and examinations - Quick report

STUDSVIK/N-05/120 Rev. 1; STUDSVIK-SCIP-9; 2008-07-11 Rev.

- Rikard Kallstrom, Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Re-fabrication of ramp rodlet M5-Hl from a Framatome ANP father rod irradiated

in Ringhals 4

N-05/129; STUDSVIK -SCIP-17; 2005-12-15

- Rikard Kallstrom, Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Re-fabrication of ramp rodlet M5-H2 from a Framatome ANP father rod irradiated

in Ringhals 4

N-05/130; STUDSVIK -SCIP-18; 2005-12-15

- Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Re-fabrication of ramp rodlet 02 from a Framatome ANP father rod irradiated in

Oskarshamn 2

N-05/088; STUDSVIK-SCIP-19; 2005-12-15

- Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Re-fabrication of ramp rodlet Z-3 from Westinghouse father rod irradiated in

North Anna

N-05/131 Rev.1; STUDSVIK -SCIP-20; 2006-02-03 Rev.

- Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Re-fabrication of ramp rodlet Z-2 from Westinghouse father rod irradiated in

Vandellos

N-05/132 Rev. 1; STUDSVIK -SCIP-21; 2006-04-13 Rev.

- Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Re-fabrication of ramp rodlet Z-4 from Westinghouse father rod irradiated in

North Anna

N-05/133 Rev.1; STUDSVIK-SCIP-22; 2006-02-03 Rev.

- Ulf Engman, Joakim K.-H. Karlsson and ChunHong Sheng:

Power Ramp Test of SCIP rod KKL-2

N-05/134; STUDSVIK-SCIP-23; 2005-12-15

- Ulf Engman and ChunHong Sheng:

Power Ramp Test of SCIP rod KKL-4

N-05/136; STUDSVIK-SCIP-24; 2005-12-15

- Ulf Engman and ChunHong Sheng:

Power Ramp Test of SCIP rod M5-H1

N-05/137; STUDSVIK-SCIP-25; 2005-12-15

- Ulf Engman and ChunHong Sheng:

Power Ramp Test of SCIP rod M5-H2

N-05/138; STUDSVIK-SCIP-26; 2005-12-15

- Ulf Engman and ChunHong Sheng:

Power Ramp Test of SCIP rod O2

N-05/139; STUDSVIK-SCIP-27; 2005-12-15

- Ulf Engman and ChunHong Sheng:

Power Ramp Test of SCIP rod Z-3

N-05/140; STUDSVIK-SCIP-28; 2005-12-15

- Ulf Engman and ChunHong Sheng:

Power Ramp Test of SCIP rod Z-2

N-05/141 Rev.2; STUDSVIK-SCIP-29; 2008-07-21 Rev.

- Ulf Engman and ChunHong Sheng:

Power Ramp Test of SCIP rod Z-4

N-05/142; STUDSVIK-SCIP-30; 2005-12-15

- Rikard Kallstrom:

Non-destructive examinations of rodlet KKL-1

N-05/143; STUDSVIK-SCIP-31; 2005-09-05

- Erik Slunga:

Non-destructive examinations of rodlet KKL-2

N-05/144; STUDSVIK-SCIP-32; 2005-12-15

- Erik Slunga:

Non-destructive examinations of rodlet KKL-4

N-05/146; STUDSVIK-SCIP-33; 2005-12-15

- Erik Slunga:

Non-destructive examinations of rodlet M5-H1

N-05/147; STUDSVIK-SCIP-34; 2005-09-05

- Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Non-destructive examinations of rodlet M5-H2

N-05/148; STUDSVIK-SCIP-35; 2005-10-31

- Stefan Wikman:

Non-destructive examinations of rodlet O2

N-05/089; STUDSVIK-SCIP-36; 2006-04-21

- Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Non-destructive examinations of rodlet Z-3

N-05/149; STUDSVIK-SCIP-37; 2005-10-31

- Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Non-destructive examinations of rodlet Z-2

N-05/150 Rev.1; STUDSVIK-SCIP-38; 2008-07-22 Rev.

- Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Non-destructive examinations of rodlet Z-4

N-05/151; STUDSVIK-SCIP-39; 2005-10-31

- Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Destructive examinations of rodlet KKL-1

N-05/152; STUDSVIK-SCIP-40; 2006-03-15

- Cecilia Janzon Sjostedt, Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Destructive examinations of rodlet KKL-2

N-05/153; STUDSVIK-SCIP-41; 2006-10-10

- Ulf Engman and ChunHong Sheng:

Power Ramp Test of SCIP rod KKL-3

N-05/135; STUDSVIK-SCIP-45; 2005-12-15

- Stefan Wikman:

Non-destructive examinations of rodlet KKL-3

N-05/145; STUDSVIK-SCIP-46; 2006-01-10

- Koji Kitano:

FEMAXI-6 analysis on four ramp tested rods from KKL

N-06/012; STUDSVIK-SCIP-47; 2006-01-16

- Koji Kitano:

FEMAXI-6 analysis on a ramp tested rod from Oskarshamn 2

N-06/041; STUDSVIK-SCIP-48; 2006-02-13

- Koji Kitano:

FEMAXI-6 analysis on three ramp tested rod with ZIRLO cladding

N-06/066 Rev.1; STUDSVIK-SCIP-49; 2008-07-22 Rev.

- Anna-Maria Alvarez Holston, Roger Lundstrom:

TASK 2: Hydride Embrittlement

Subtask 2:9-B Destructive Examination of ramped rodlet Z-3

Incipient crack formation in a hydride dense rim

STUDSVIK/N-06/121; STUDSVIK-SCIP-52; 2007-10-25

- Rikard Kallstrom:

SEM examination of rodlet KKL-3

N-06/125; STUDSVIK-SCIP-53; 2006-06-20

- Ali R. Massih and Lars Olaf Jernkvist:

Delayed hydride cracking in zirconium alloys: a selective review of models and

experimental data

STUDSVIK/N-06/152; STUDSVIK-SCIP-54; August 29, 2006

- Lars Olaf Jernkvist and Ali R. Massih:

Intended approach to modelling hydride-induced failure of zirconium alloy

cladding tubes

STUDSVIK/N-06/153; STUDSVIK-SCIP-55; August 29, 2006

- Koji Kitano:

FEMAXI-6 analysis on two ramp tested rods with M5 cladding

N-06/160; STUDSVIK-SCIP-56; 2006-05-11

- Daniele Minghetti:

Development of Image Analysis methods for Hydride morphology characterization

Final report

STUDSVIK/N-07/028; STUDSVIK-SCIP-57; 2007-01-26

- Ulf Engman and ChunHong Sheng:

Destructive Examination of Rodlet O2

N-07/033; STUDSVIK-SCIP-58; 2007-01-30

- Viatcheslav Grigoriev:

Parametric study of crack propagation by DHC in the axial direction of

unirradiated and irradiated Zircaloy cladding - Tasks 2.7A and 3.1B

STUDSVIK/N-07/017; STUDSVIK-SCIP-59; 2007-01-17

- Lars Olaf Jernkvist and Ali R. Massih:

An integrated numerical model for hydrogen transport, hydride formation and

hydride-induced fracture of zirconium alloys

Report TR07-003V1; SCIP-61; June 5,2007

- Ali R. Massih and Lars Olaf Jernkvist:

Assessment of measurable hydride morphology parameters

Report TR07-004Vl; SCIP-62, June 5,2007

- Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Modelling of Fuel Rod Behaviour- Notes on Workshop held within the Studsvik

Cladding Integrity Project SCIP

N-07/125; STUDSVIK-SCIP-63; 2007-08-20

- Hans-Urs Zwicky:

SVEA-96+ Fuel Rod AEB072-J9 Irradiated in KKL: Pre-Irradiation Data, Power

History, Post-Irradiation Examination Results

N-07/152; STUDSVIK-SCIP-64; 2007-10-16

- Carolina Losin:

Refabrication of ramp rodlet GE-1 from a GE segmented rod irradiated in

Forsmark 1

N-07/164; STUDSVIK-SCIP-65; 2007-11-16

- Carolina Losin:

1:6-C Non destructive examinations of GE-1 after ramp test

STUDSVIK/N-08/086; STUDSVIK-SCIP-66; 2008-04-09

- Carolina Losin:

1:6-C Destructive examinations of GE-1 after ramp test

STUDSVIK/N-08/096; STUDSVIK-SCIP-67; 2008-04-21

- Anna-Maria Alvarez Holston:

Quick report

Sub tasks 3:2-A (Modeling of hydride parameters)

and 2:3-A (Modeling of H-induced failures)

Step 4: Evaluation of SCIP mechanical tests

Description of selected tests performed within subtask

3:5-C (Demonstration of radial direction DHC technique)

STUDSVIK-SCIP-69; 2008-11-06

- J.-H. Hansen:

Final report for the IFA-717 irradiation, SCIP hydrogen diffusion test

FC-Note 1706; STUDSVIK-SCIP-70; 2008-12-08

- Michael Preuss et al:

In-situ mapping of hydrides and the zirconium matrix in notched Zircaloy-2

samples using high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction - a feasibility study

STUDSVIKlN-1 0/1 05; STUDSVIK-SCIP-71; 2010-05-19

- Hans-Urs Zwicky:

Fuel Rod Behaviour Modelling, 2nd SCIP Ramp Test Benchmark

N-09/035; STUDSVIK-SCIP-73; 2009-02-05

- Hans-Drs Zwicky, Kjell Pettersson, Gunnar Lysell:

Fuel failure types in zirconium based cladding

N-09/046; STUDSVIK-SCIP-74; 2009-02-17

- Ulf Engman:

Power ramp test of a PWR test rod with MDA radial texture cladding

N-09/089; STUDSVIK-SCIP-75; 2009-04-29

- Jonas Eskhult, Clara Anghel:

Studsvik Mandrel test equipment

STUDSVIK/N-09/093; STUDSVIK-SCIP-76; 2009-05-11

- Lars Olaf Jernkvist:

Evaluation of SCIP ring tensile tests

Report TR08-006V1

STUDSVIK/N-10/101; STUDSVIK-SCIP-80; 2010-01-14

- Tero Manngard:

Finite element modelling of Studsvik ring tensile tests - Elasto-plastic

calculations

Report TR08-009V1

STUDSVIK/N-10/103; STUDSVIK-SCIP-81; 2008-12-30

- Hans-Urs Zwicky:

LOCA Discussions

June 2, 2009, Horsvik, Studsvik

N-09/138; STUDSVIK-SCIP-82; 2009-08-18

- Clara Anghel, Anna-Maria Alvarez Holston, Ulf Engman:

Basic studies: Irradiation effects on hydride dissolution and H diffusion

STUDSVIK/N-09/159; STUDSVIK-SCIP-83; 2011-05-16

- Clara Anghel:

Parameter study of Iodine-induced Stress Corrosion Cracking

STUDSVIK/N-09/160; STUDSVIK-SCIP-84; 2011-03-30

- Ulf Engman:

Power ramp test of a PWR test rod with ZIRLO radial texture cladding

N-09/179; STUDSVIK-SCIP-85; 2009-09-22

- Ulf Engman:

Step ramp test of a PWR test rod with ZIRLO radial texture

N-09/180; STUDSVIK-SCIP-86; 2009-10-13

- - Lars Olaf Jernkvist:

Evaluation of SCIP pin loading tension tests

Report TR09-006V2

STUDSVIK/N-10/100; STUDSVIK-SCIP-89; 2010-02-11

- Tero Manngard:

Finite element calculations of Studsvik ring tensile tests 95138-IVa and

95138-IVb

Report TR09-005V1

STUDSVIK/N-10/102; STUDSVIK-SCIP-90; 2009-07-01

- Tero Manngard:

Finite element creep calculations of Studsvik ring tensile tests i4-p8 and

p1a-p1

Report TR09-003V1

STUDSVIK/N-10/104; STUDSVIK-SCIP-91; 2009-06-16

- Lars Olof Jernkvist:

Evaluation of the KKL-1 power ramp test

Report TR10-001D1; SCIP-93; June 1, 2010

- Anna-Maria Alvarez Holston:

TASK 2: Hydride Embrittlement

Subtask 2:1-B, 3:8-B,

Part II: Parametric study of crack initiation in single hydrides

STUDSVIK/N-11/214; STUDSVIK-SCIP-94; 2011-11-07

- Viatcheslav Grigoriev:

Effect of radial hydrides on inward DHC initiation.

Parametric study of crack propagation by DHC in the axial direction of fuel

cladding

STUDSVIK/N-11/214; STUDSVIK-SCIP-94; 2011-12-19

- Anna-Maria Alvarez Holston, Roger Lundstrom:

TASK 2: Hydride Embrittlement

Subtask 2:1-B,

Parametric study of crack initiation in a hydride dense rim Part II

STUDSVIK/N-11/213; STUDSVIK-SCIP-96; 2011-11-07

- Anna-Maria Alvarez Holston:

TASK 3: Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC)

Subtask 3:5-C, Demonstration of radial direction DHC technique

Subtask 3:8-B, Extended studies of radial directionDHC

STUDSVIK/N-11/216; STUDSVIK-SCIP-97; 2011-11-16

- Anna-Maria Alvarez Holston, Roger Lundstrom:

TASK 3: Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC)

Subtask 3:10-B Destructive Examination of ramped rodlets

Crack formation and propagation during stepwise power ramp testing of a high BU

PWR cladding with hydride rim formation

STUDSVIK/N-11/029; STUDSVIK-SCIP-98; 2011-11-07

- Rikard Kallstrom, Joakim Karlsson:

Subtask 0:3-8, Hardening Relaxation tests

N-10/054; STUDSVIK-SCIP-100; 2010-03-18

- Hans-Urs Zwicky, Anna-Maria Alvarez Holston:

Notes, Workshop on Hydrogen Induced Failures

November 17/18,2009, Horsvik, Studsvik

N-10/074; STUDSVIK-SCIP-101; 2010-04-14

- Daniel Jadernas:

Task 3: Delayed Hydride cracking

Subtask 3:8-B Radial direction DHC

Part I: Incipient crack formation in a dense hydride rim

STUDSVIK/N-10/084; STUDSVIK-SCIP-103; 2010-04-28

- Lars Olof Jernkvist:

Summary of SCIP subtask 3:2-A. Modelling of DHC in cladding axial/radial

direction

Report TR10-004V1; SCIP-104; February 4, 2011

- Anna-Maria Alvarez Holston, Rikard Kallstrom, Clara Anghel, Viatcheslav

Grigoriev:

Studsvik Cladding Integrity Programme - Comprehensive Technical report

STUDSVIK/N-11/199; STUDSVIK-SCIP-105; 2011-05-30

- Rikard Kallstrom, Gunnar Lysell, Kjell Pettersson, Anna-Maria Alvarez Holston:

SCIP, Task 0; Ramp test results - Final report

STUDSVIK/N-10/106; STUDSVIK-SCIP-106; 2010-05-15

- Clara Anghel, Hans-Urs Zwicky:

PCI seminar - Summary report

STUDSVIK/N-10/169; STUDSVIK-SCIP II-107; 2010-10-08

- Rikard Kallstrom:

Ceramography of four SCIP ramp rodlets

N-10/182; STUDSVIK-SCIP-109; 2010-10-01

- Anna-Maria Alvarez Holston:

Final report of Task 2 and 3: Hydrogen induced failures

STUDSVIK/N-11/186; STUDSVIK-SCIP-113; 2011-06-15

- Anna-Maria Alvarez Holston, Mikael Karlsson:

The OECD/NEA Studsvik Cladding Integrity Project (SCIP) - Executive summary

STUDSVIK/N-11/106; STUDSVIK-SCIP-114; 2011-05-30

- Clara Anghel:

The OECD-NEA Studsvik cladding integrity programme - Task 1, PCI

STUDSVIK/N-11/113; STUDSVIK-SCIP-115; 2011-07-07

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Keywords: LWR reactors, cladding, hydriding, pellet clad interaction (pci), pellet clad mechanical interaction.