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PKL-2 investigated safety issues relevant for current PWR plants as well as new PWR design concepts. It also focused on complex heat transfer mechanisms in the steam generators and boron precipitation processes under postulated accident situations.
The first category included tests addressing the heat transfer mechanisms in the steam generators (SGs) in the presence of nitrogen, steam and water, in both vertical and horizontal steam generators. Also covered were cool down procedures in the case where steam generators had partly dried out on the secondary side. An additional test addressed heat transfer in the steam generators under reflux condenser conditions (e.g. fast secondary side depressurisation). Fast cool down transients (with a water-filled reactor coolant system) such as main steam line break, completed by tests that mixed of hot and cold water in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) downcomer and the lower plenum were also considered in this phase. Further investigation addressed boron precipitation processes in the core following large break loss of coolant accidents (LB-LOCA).
The program included eight integral experiments at the PKL test facility covering the following topics:
G1: Systematic investigation of the heat transfer mechanisms in the SGs in presence of nitrogen, steam and water (two tests performed in July and August 2008)*
G2: Cool-down procedures with SGs isolated and emptied on the secondary side (one test with three runs performed in December 2008)
G3: Fast cool-down transients (main steam line break) (one test performed in July 2009)**
G4: Accident situation under reflux condenser conditions for new PWR design concept (one test with two runs performed in December 2009)
G5: Boron precipitation following large break loss of coolant accidents.
G6: RCS cool down with void formation in RPV upper head (one test performed in April 2011)
G7: Counterpart test with the rig-of-safety assessment/large-scale test (ROSA/LSTF) facility on a small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with accident management procedures (one test performed in July 2011)
* The tests on the heat transfer mechanisms in the SGs in the presence of nitrogen were complemented by tests in the PMK test facility in Hungary for horizontal SGs.
** The tests on fast cool down transients were completed with tests at the Rossendorf Coolant Mixing Model (ROCOM) test facility in Germany on mixing in the RPV downcomer and the lower plenum.
A concluding joint workshop with the ROSA-2 Project was organised from 15-19 October 2012 at the OECD Conference Centre and attracted 65 participants from 14 countries and 2 international organisations. 45 presentations were given covering the general overview of PKL and ROSA projects, analyses of the counterpart test at the PKL and ROSA/LSTF facilities, the results and analyses related to PKL-2/ROCOM tests, the results and analyses related to other PKL and ROSA tests, analytical studies on core exit temperature (CET) behaviour and general analyses related to PKL-2 and ROSA-2 tests. The conclusion of this workshop prepared the session chair together with the final summary integration report of the two projects was issued as a public report in 2013.
Participating countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands), Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States
Project period: April 2008 to September 2011.
The distribution of this package is restricted and subject to prior approval.
For more detailed information visit https://www.oecd-nea.org/jcms/pl_25236/primary-coolant-loop-test-facility-pkl-project
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Keywords: boron dilution, loss-of-coolant accident, pressurized water reactor, pwr reactors, thermal hydraulics.